General and Animal Biology (BIO 4040-4042) or equivalent is strongly recommended.
Anatomy & Physiology 1 lecture and laboratory (BIO 4050, or equivalent)
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Anatomy of the central nervous system:
anatomy of the brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum.
autonomic nervous system;
thoracic cavities and the mediastinum;
respiratory system anatomy:
Physiology of the cardiovascular system:
characteristics of blood;
the cardiac cycle and cardiac output;
blood vessels and their functioning:
arteries as passageways
arterioles as resistance vessels
capillaries as sites of exchange
lymphatics and interstitial fluid return
veins and venous return.
resistance to infection;
nonspecific immune responses:
specific immune responses:
intercellular chemical messengers;
endocrine organs and their hormones;
Cow spinal cord dissection.
Microscopic anatomy of the spinal cord.
Neurological basis of human reflexes.
Sheep eye dissection.
Anatomy of the ear.
Cranial nerve and special sense testing.
circulatory system design;
common carotid a
venous return to the heart
fetal circulatory changes.
Human blood pressure measurements:
thoracic cavities and the mediastinum;
respiratory system anatomy:
Anatomy of the endocrine glands.
To understand the anatomy and physiology of the human central nervous
system and how it functions in homeostasis.
To learn the endocrine organs and the hormones they produce, and to understand how
the endocrine system functions in homeostasis.
To learn how to use the Internet as a tool for gathering information.
To understand the physiology of cardiovascular and immune systems and
how they function to maintain homeostasis.
To learn anatomic components of the body by dissection and to understand
their regional and systems relationships.
To achieve practical dexterity in dissection and keenness of observation.
To learn how to use the Internet as a tool for augmenting knowledge learned in
the laboratory exercises.
Data acquired during hands-on dissection and observation will facilitate the
studentís comprehension of the lecture material.
To identify selected structures of the central nervous system through examination of
models and specimens and by dissection.
To understand how the body obtains information, processes it, and executes a function
based on that processing.
To appreciate how to design experiments to test physiologic phenomena, to learn
how to be organized in performing the experiments, to collect data accurately,
and to prepare a detailed report of the exercise.
Class lectures based upon the distributed outlines. This material may,
from time to time, be augmented by assigned readings, Internet searches,
or video presentations.
Exams will be based on the lecture presentations and any other assigned material.
Dissection of the sheep brain, bovine spinal cord, and sheep eye. Examination of anatomic
and histologic material. The student will be responsible for being able to identify items
specified in the laboratory guide handout. Material may be added to or deleted from this
list as the instructor deems necessary.
Physiology exercises will be performed by the students carefully following the
protocols within the laboratory guide. Any deviations from the prescribed procedures
will be explained at the beginning of the laboratory session. On occasion, the student
may have to prepare a written report for the laboratory exercise.
Laboratory exercise content may be augmented by assigned readings, Internet searches,
or video presentations.
The quizzes used to test the students’ knowledge may use specimens or illustrations.
Two examinations with a good attendance record, as specified
in the Fineprint Section below.
Two practical examinations with a good attendance record and active participation.
|This is the Fineprint Section
What you need to know. Anatomy and physiology are demanding fields of study
requiring the student to be disciplined and attentive to detail. There is
much to learn and a very short period in which to learn it. Students who
attend the lectures regularly, take adequate notes during lecture, and study
regularly do well in these courses. While there are no formal prerequisites
at this time, a baseline of knowledge, as might be learned in high school, is presumed:
a working command of spoken and written English; the ability to perform basic arithmetic
operations; an elementary knowledge of plane and solid geometry; basic
biology, including structure of the cell, evolution, and development; basic
chemistry, including atomic structure, elements, compounds, and energy; and
some knowledge of physics, such as the laws of motion. Add to this list as a
very strongly suggested skill set is the ability to use a computer, e-mail,
and the Internet productively. Not only will this allow you to use the
lecture-note pages to the fullest, but it will also permit easy and rapid
communication between you and your instructor, you and your classmates, you
and your University.
This may look like a formidable list, but do not be put off by it; there is
nothing in the list that should not be expected of any student taking a
college biology course, let alone anatomy and physiology. Except for the
language issue, any deficit can be overcome by additional reading and study by
the student at the appropriate time.
Studying. I am not an expert in designing effective study habits, but
I will offer a few suggestions:
1. Be interested in the material. I believe that even if every
other suggestion is ignored, when a student is truly interested in a subject,
he or she takes the time to explore it in greater detail. The more one
investigates something, the more expert one becomes.
2. Study often. Try not to wait until the night before a
midterm or final to cram. If one studies a little bit after each class
session, not only does the material seem more familiar, but there is the
chance for additional consolidation of the material into memory. Some
authorities recommend at least two hours of study for each hour of lecture
3. Study what is important. Always study the material presented
in lecture and any assigned reading. I would be remiss if I did not emphasize
how important it is to go to class. Additional reading of the textbook or
linked web pages should not be ignored, but if pressed for study time, go with
learning the material that the test is known to cover.
4. Generate questions and answers. And do not make them
trivially simple. Test them out on other students in the class. Solve
problems. Use the study/quiz questions in your textbook.
5. Study as a group. If the group members test one another, make
sure that at least one person in the group knows the correct answer to the
6. Seek extra help. As with studying, do not wait until the last
minute. For one thing, you will have lost the context of the problem. If you
do not understand something, ask the instructor after class, or ask your
laboratory teaching assistant, or e-mail the instructor.
7. Use Blackboard. To help you with this course, a blackboard site
has been set up. That site has useful items and links that can improve your studying
and grade in this course. Here are some of the components of Blackboard:
Course Information There is a copy of the syllabus here,
instructions on how to log on to the textbook website, and a link to the
Course Materials Study guides, learning objectives, and links to
learning activities are in this area.
Assessment Quizzes This section includes quizzes for each chapter.
Discussion Board This is a good place to ask questions or peruse the
questions and answers of other students.
Tools Grades will be posted in this section.
Format. Examinations (and, if given, quizzes) will be in multiple choice/true-false
format. Unless otherwise noted, questions will be
based on the material presented in lecture; the lecture session
outlines available by syllabus web page links will serve as a guide for the material covered. This statement does
not preclude the possibility of questions being asked which might serve to
test the studentís ability to visualize, analyze, or interpret other data
germane to the field of inquiry. In addition, questions will not just test
rote memorization of data, but some may require the student to analyze data to
arrive at the correct answer.
From time to time, questions may be added as lateral-thinking challenges to
the student. Answering these questions is voluntary on the part of the
student, and any answer, or lack thereof, will in no way affect the grade
earned by the student on the didactic portion of the examination.
Exam protocol. Students must put all study materials (textbooks,
notes, review cards, whatever) away at the time the examinations are handed
out; further review of material once the exam has been distributed will not
be permitted. It is incumbent upon the student to read the examination
instructions carefully, to heed any additions or corrections indicated by the
instructor, and to ask the instructor if something is not clearly explained
or questioned. Be aware, however, that such questions may not be answered
because to do so would betray the answer.
All exams must be returned by the designated end time for that examination;
failure to turn in the exam by that time will result in a zero for the
examination. If a student is late for a scheduled exam, the student will be
permitted to take that examination provided that no student has already
completed the exam and left the room; in addition, the student must complete
the exam and turn it in by the designated end time of the examination.
During an examination, the student may not listen to any playback device,
digital or analog, including, but not limited to, tape recorders, CD players,
camcorders, &c. The use of calculators requires permission of the
Challenges. Any challenge to a question on an exam or to a grade
earned on an exam must be submitted in writing by the class following the
posting or review of the answers or grades for that exam.
Missed exams. No makeup examination will be given except for one missed
due to extraordinary circumstances. In those cases of
genuine emergency, prior notice or subsequent documentation must be provided
in order for a makeup to be allowed.
Failure to do so will result in a grade of zero being posted for that exam.
Please see the lecture syllabus for information on how to contact me.
Athletics. Academics has priority over sports. If there is a conflict
between sports travel and course work that must be completed, it is the
responsibility of the student to ensure that arrangements have been made with
the instructor to clear any missing assignments or examinations prior to the
final exam in the course.
Extra credit projects. No. Why not?
1. To be fair, an extra credit project, if offered to one student, must be offered
to all students.
2. The time spent on an extra credit project would better be used in
studying the assigned material.
Deportment. Proper class deportment is expected. Questions that seek to
clarify or expand the lecture material are always welcome. Disruptive
classroom behavior will not be tolerated, and frivolous questions that are
totally off-topic, persistent argumentative questions, or questions that only
serve as self-aggrandizement fall within the purview of such behavior.
Students engaged in such unsociable activity will be asked to leave. If the
offender or offenders cannot be identified, then the lecture will be
terminated, but the class will be responsible for whatever material would
have been covered. Impolite behavior, such as wearing a baseball cap indoors,
is merely gauche, not disruptive, and so, cannot be barred.
Portable communication devices. The use of beepers or cellular phones
during class can be quite disruptive to the lecture environment. Therefore,
all beepers and cellular phones must be turned off prior to entering the
lecture room. Exceptions to this policy must be cleared with the instructor.
Violation of this directive will be considered equivalent to disruptive
The assignment of letter grades to oneís overall course average will be
determined by the following rule: If the class mean is ≥ 78, then
standard letter-equivalencies will pertain; i.e., 78=C+, 80=B-, 84=B, etc. If
the class mean is < 78, then this mean score will be given the grade of
C+. For example, if the mean=70, then 70=C+. If you obtain the mean score on
all yours tests, you are guaranteed to receive a grade no lower than C+.
Grades on a particular examination should always be viewed in a comparative
light, and if a letter grade has been attached to the exam, that letter grade
indicates the position of the earned score on that exam within the
The student is encouraged to study with other students, to share notes and
ideas. All examinations, laboratory exercises, and other assignments, must be
completed by the student alone. Examinations and quizzes administered in this
class during previous quarters are not available for review by the student,
and any student who reviews such will be considered to have cheated. Neither
this nor any other form of academic dishonesty will be tolerated. For
example, the following is quoted from the University College 1998-1999
Bulletin [p. 24]:
Students must accept the responsibility to be honest and to respect ethical standards
in meeting their academic assignments and requirements. Integrity in academic
life requires that students demonstrate intellectual and academic achievement
independent of all assistance except that authorized by the instructor.
Consequently, all work submitted to meet course requirements, whether it
takes the form of papers, examinations, laboratory reports, computer projects,
quizzes, or any other work assigned, is expected to be the studentís own work
produced specifically for each course.
Students who fail to meet the responsibility of academic integrity as defined
here are subject to disciplinary sanctions ranging from reduction in grade or
failure in the assignment or course to dismissal from the University.
Tutorial information can be obtained from the Office of Academic and Student Affairs
(617-373-8300). If you have special needs because of learning disabilities or other
kinds of disabilities, please feel free to discuss these with me so that the proper
accommodations can be arranged. For more details on the services Northeastern University
offers you, please see the latest Bulletin.