General and Animal Biology or equivalent is strongly recommended.
Anatomy & Physiology 1 lecture and laboratory (BIO 4161/4165, or equivalent).
Exam 1 .....
Exam 2 .....
Quiz 1 .....
Quiz 2 .....
Topics include properties of cell membranes, anatomy and physiology of the nervous system
special senses, and endocrinology. The laboratory includes membrane physiology, gross and microscropic anatomy of the nervous
and endocrine systems, and testing of somatic and special senses..
In this lab, students will identify selected structures of the central nervous system through
examination of models and specimens to understand how the body obtains, processes, and reacts to information. Dissections of
a sheep’s brain, bovine spinal cord, and a sheep’s eye are performed..
Anatomy of the central nervous system:
evolution and general design;
anatomy of the brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum.
autonomic nervous system;
intercellular chemical messengers;
endocrine organs and their hormones;
thoracic cavities and the mediastinum;
respiratory system anatomy:
Physiology of the cardiovascular system:
characteristics of blood;
the cardiac cycle and cardiac output;
blood vessels and their functioning:
arteries as passageways
arterioles as resistance vessels
capillaries as sites of exchange
lymphatics and interstitial fluid return
veins and venous return.
resistance to infection;
nonspecific immune responses:
specific immune responses:
Sheep brain dissection:
Cow spinal cord dissection.
Microscopic anatomy of the spinal cord.
Neurological basis of human reflexes.
Sheep eye dissection.
Anatomy of the ear.
Cranial nerve and special sense testing.
Anatomy of the endocrine glands.
circulatory system design;
common carotid a
venous return to the heart
fetal circulatory changes.
Human blood pressure measurements:
genetics of blood typing;
thoracic cavities and the mediastinum;
respiratory system anatomy:
Students participating in the lecture component of this course will have the opportunity to:
• understand the anatomy and physiology of the human central nervous
system and how it functions in homeostasis;
• learn the endocrine organs and the hormones they produce, and to understand how
the endocrine system functions in homeostasis;
• learn how to use the Internet as a tool for gathering information;
• understand the physiology of cardiovascular and immune systems and
how they function to maintain homeostasis.
Students participating in the laboratory component of this course will have the opportunity to:
• learn anatomic components of the body by dissection and to understand
their regional and systems relationships;
• achieve practical dexterity in dissection and keenness of observation;
• learn how to use the Internet as a tool for augmenting knowledge learned in
the laboratory exercises.
Although not required when taking the A&P 2 lecture course (BIO 4162), the
data acquired during hands-on dissection and observation will facilitate the
student’s comprehension of the lecture material by:
• identifying selected structures of the central nervous system by dissection and
through examination of models and specimens;
• understanding how the body obtains information, processes it, and executes a function
based on that processing;
• appreciating how to design experiments to test physiologic phenomena, to learn
how to be organized in performing the experiments, to collect data accurately,
and to prepare a detailed report of the exercise.
Class lectures based upon the distributed outlines. This material may,
from time to time, be augmented by assigned readings, Internet searches,
or video presentations.
Exams will be based on the lecture presentations and any other assigned material.
Dissection of the sheep brain, bovine spinal cord, and sheep eye. Examination of anatomic
and histologic material. The student will
be responsible for being able to identify items specified in the laboratory guide handout.
Material may be added to or deleted from this list as the instructor deems necessary.
Physiology exercises will be performed by the students carefully following the
protocols within the laboratory guide. Any deviations from the prescribed procedures
will be explained at the beginning of the laboratory session. On occasion, the student
may have to prepare a written report for the laboratory exercise.
Laboratory exercise content may be augmented by assigned readings, Internet searches,
or video presentations.
It is expected that any written work by a student will be clear, comprehensible, well-reasoned,
grammatically correct, and competently produced.
The quizzes used to test the students’ knowledge may use specimens or illustrations.
Two examinations , as specified
in the Fineprint Section below.
Two practical examinations.
|This is the Fineprint Section
What you need to know. Anatomy and physiology are demanding fields of study
requiring the student to be disciplined and attentive to detail. There is
much to learn and a very short period in which to learn it. Students who
attend the lectures regularly, take adequate notes during lecture, and study
regularly do well in these courses. While there are no formal prerequisites
at this time, a baseline of knowledge, as might be learned in high school, is presumed:
a working command of spoken and written English; the ability to perform basic arithmetic
operations; an elementary knowledge of plane and solid geometry; basic
biology, including structure of the cell, evolution, and development; basic
chemistry, including atomic structure, elements, compounds, and energy; and
some knowledge of physics, such as the laws of motion. Add to this list as a
very strongly suggested skill set is the ability to use a computer, e-mail,
and the Internet productively. Not only will this allow you to use the
lecture-note pages to the fullest, but it will also permit easy and rapid
communication between you and your instructor, you and your classmates, you
and your University.
This may look like a formidable list, but do not be put off by it; there is
nothing in the list that should not be expected of any student taking a
college biology course, let alone anatomy and physiology. Except for the
language issue, any deficit can be overcome by additional reading and study by
the student at the appropriate time.
Studying. I am not an expert in designing effective study habits, but
I will offer a few suggestions:
1. Be interested in the material. I believe that even if every
other suggestion is ignored, when a student is truly interested in a subject,
he or she takes the time to explore it in greater detail. The more one
investigates something, the more expert one becomes.
2. Study often. Try not to wait until the night before a
midterm or final to cram. If one studies a little bit after each class
session, not only does the material seem more familiar, but there is the
chance for additional consolidation of the material into memory. Some
authorities recommend at least two hours of study for each hour of lecture
3. Study what is important. Always study the material presented
in lecture and any assigned reading. I would be remiss if I did not emphasize
how important it is to go to class. Additional reading of the textbook or
linked web pages should not be ignored, but if pressed for study time, go with
learning the material that the test is known to cover.
4. Generate questions and answers. And do not make them
trivially simple. Test them out on other students in the class. Solve
problems. Use the study/quiz questions in your textbook.
5. Study as a group. If the group members test one another, make
sure that at least one person in the group knows the correct answer to the
6. Seek extra help. As with studying, do not wait until the last
minute. For one thing, you will have lost the context of the problem. If you
do not understand something, ask the instructor after class, or ask your
laboratory teaching assistant, or e-mail the instructor.
7. Use Blackboard™. To help you with this course, a Blackboard™ site
has been set up. That site has useful items and links that can improve your studying
and grade in this course. Here are some of the components of Blackboard™:
Course Information There is a copy of the syllabus here,
instructions on how to log on to the textbook website, and a link to the
Course Materials Study guides, learning objectives, and links to
learning activities are in this area.
Assessment Quizzes This section includes quizzes for each chapter.
Discussion Board This is a good place to ask questions or peruse the
questions and answers of other students.
Tools Grades will be posted in this section.
Format. Lecture examinations (and, if given, quizzes) will be in
essay/short-answer/identification format. Unless otherwise noted, questions will be
based on the material presented in lecture; the lecture session
outlines available by syllabus web page links will serve as a guide for the material covered. This statement does
not preclude the possibility of questions being asked which might serve to
test the studentís ability to visualize, analyze, or interpret other data
germane to the field of inquiry. In addition, questions will not just test
rote memorization of data, but some may require the student to analyze data to
arrive at the correct answer.
From time to time, questions may be added as lateral-thinking challenges to
the student. Answering these questions is voluntary on the part of the
student, and any answer, or lack thereof, will in no way affect the grade
earned by the student on the didactic portion of the examination.
Exam protocol. Students must put all study materials (textbooks,
notes, review cards, whatever) away at the time the examinations are handed
out; further review of material once the exam has been distributed will not
be permitted. It is incumbent upon the student to read the examination
instructions carefully, to heed any additions or corrections indicated by the
instructor, and to ask the instructor if something is not clearly explained
or questioned. Be aware, however, that such questions may not be answered
because to do so would betray the answer.
All exams must be returned by the designated end time for that examination;
failure to turn in the exam by that time will result in a zero for the
examination. If a student is late for a scheduled exam, the student will be
permitted to take that examination provided that no student has already
completed the exam and left the room; in addition, the student must complete
the exam and turn it in by the designated end time of the examination.
During an examination, the student may not listen to any playback device,
digital or analog, including, but not limited to, tape recorders, CD players,
camcorders, &c. The use of calculators requires permission of the
Challenges. Any challenge to a question on an exam or to a grade
earned on an exam must be submitted in writing by the class following the
posting or review of the answers or grades for that exam.
Missed exams. No makeup examination will be given except for one missed
due to extraordinary circumstances. In those cases of
genuine emergency, prior notice or subsequent documentation must be provided
in order for a makeup to be allowed.
Failure to do so will result in a grade of zero being posted for that exam.
Please see the lecture syllabus for information on how to contact me.
Athletics. Academics has priority over sports. If there is a conflict
between sports travel and course work that must be completed, it is the
responsibility of the student to ensure that arrangements have been made with
the instructor to clear any missing assignments or examinations prior to the
final exam in the course.
Extra credit projects. No. Why not?
1. To be fair, an extra credit project, if offered to one student, must be offered
to all students.
2. The time spent on an extra credit project would better be used in
studying the assigned material.
Attendance. While attendance is not taken on a weekly basis in
a large lecture course such an Anatomy & Physiology, and there is no
attendance component in the determination of the grade, failure of the student
to attend lecture on a regular basis could adversely affect a student’s
performance on the tests, not to mention that the student has not been able
to benefit from the presentation of the material.
Deportment. Proper class deportment is expected. Questions that seek to
clarify or expand the lecture material are always welcome. Disruptive
classroom behavior will not be tolerated, and frivolous questions that are
totally off-topic, persistent argumentative questions, or questions that only
serve as self-aggrandizement fall within the purview of such behavior.
Students engaged in such unsociable activity will be asked to leave. If the
offender or offenders cannot be identified, then the lecture will be
terminated, but the class will be responsible for whatever material would
have been covered. Impolite behavior, such as wearing a baseball cap indoors,
is merely gauche, not disruptive, and so, cannot be barred.
Portable communication devices. The use
of beepers or cellular phonesduring class can be quite disruptive to the lecture
environment. Therefore, all beepers and cellular phones must be turned off prior to
entering the lecture room. This means no ringing phones, no vibrating phones, and no
text-messaging during class. Exceptions to this policy must be cleared with the
Violation of this directive will be considered equivalent to disruptive classroom
The assignment of letter grades to oneís overall course average will be
determined by the following rule: If the class mean is ≥ 78, then
standard letter-equivalencies will pertain; i.e., 78=C+, 80=B-, 84=B, etc. If
the class mean is < 78, then this mean score will be given the grade of
C+. For example, if the mean=70, then 70=C+. If you obtain the mean score on
all yours tests, you are guaranteed to receive a grade no lower than C+.
Grades on a particular examination should always be viewed in a comparative
light, and if a letter grade has been attached to the exam, that letter grade
indicates the position of the earned score on that exam within the
For further information of the SPCS policy on grading, please
see the Student Handbook,
Many circumstances may require a modification of the course content or schedule
of events (such as a school closure on a scheduled examination date); the instructor reserves the
right to make such modifications with appropriate notification. If such a change is necessary,
a notice will be posted via Blackboard™ to call the student’s attention to it.
The student is encouraged to study with other students, to share notes and
ideas. All examinations, laboratory exercises, and other assignments, must be
completed by the student alone. Examinations and quizzes administered in this
class during previous quarters are not available for review by the student,
and any student who reviews such will be considered to have violated the
policies on academic honesty. Neither this nor any other form of academic dishonesty
will be tolerated. In the frame below is Northeastern’s Academic Honesty and Integrity Policy:
Tutorial information can be obtained from the
Academic Assitance Center,
102 Cahners Hall; Phone: 617-373-2328, 617-373-8517 (TTY); Fax: 617-373-2328.
If you have special needs because of learning disabilities or other
kinds of disabilities, please feel free to discuss these with me so that the proper
accommodations can be arranged, or contact the
Disability Resource Center.
For more details on the services Northeastern University offers you, please see the
SPCS resources and services page.