Carl F. Moxey, PhD
Senior Lecturer in Biology
Northeastern University,
College of Professional Studies

Spring Quarter 2016
Lecture:  Thursday 550 PM – 750 PM
Ryder 156
Laboratory:  Thursday 800 PM – 1000 PM
Behrakis 720

F Martini, J Nath, & EF Bartholomew, 2014, Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 10th edition,
Benjamin Cummings. [ ISBN 978-0-321-90907-7 ]
Students having the ninth edition, or equivalent textbook, need not upgrade

P Hampf, A Roth, M-S Potts-Santone, & A Gilbert, 2014, Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology,
McGraw-Hill. [ ISBN 978-1-259-38359-5 ]

Week Date Lecture Laboratory
I Th 14 April Cardiovascular Physiology 1
[ Martini:  20 ]
Human Electrocardiogram
Examination of the cardiac cycle
[ laboratory exercise ]

Human Blood Pressure
Measurement of blood pressure
with sphygmomanometer
Observation of blood pressure
regulation during exercise
II Th 21 April Cardiovascular Physiology 2
[ Martini:  21 ]
Complete PhILS exercises 28, 29, and 31
III Th 28 April Immune Function 1 & Immune Function 2
[ Martini:  22 ]
Gross anatomy and microanatomy
of selected immune system organs
[ laboratory exercise ]

Identification of blood cells,
normal and abnormal
Blood typing
[ laboratory exercise ]
IV Th 05 May Respiratory Physiology
[ Martini:  23 ]
Human Ventilation
Measurement of respiratory volumes
and flow rates
Observation of ventilation control processes
Week Date Lecture Laboratory
V Th 12 May Digestive Physiology
[ Martini:  24 ]
Microscopic examination of the gut tube
Complete PhILS exercise 37
VI Th 19 May Mid-Term Exam
Mid-Term Quiz
VII Th 26 May Nutrition & Metabolism
[ Martini:  25 ]
Anatomy as Art
  Gunther von Hagens’s Body Worlds 1 [video]
VIII Th 02 June The Urinary System
[ Martini:  26 ]
Urinary Function
  Urinalysis Tutorial
Microscopic anatomy of the urinary system
IX Th 09 June The Urinary System
[ Martini:  27 ]
Dr von Hagens presents the reproductive system
X Th 16 June Reproductive Physiology 1, 2, and 3
[ Martini:  28 ]
Urogenital Systems2
  Microscopic anatomy of the reproductive systems
Sheep kidney dissection
& rat urogenital anatomy images

XI Th 23 June Genetics

  Early vertebrate embryology 3, 4
XII Th 30 June Final Exam
Quiz 2

Contact me by email at
or by text-message or voice-mail at

Lecture Laboratory
Anatomy and physiology of the respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems, and fetal development are among the topics discussed. The laboratory emphasizes the physiology of these systems. This course studies the physiology of the human cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems, using models and dissections augmented by video and computer-assisted exercises.
Class lectures based upon the distributed outlines. This material may, from time to time, be augmented by assigned readings, Internet searches, or video presentations.
Exams will be based on the lecture presentations and any other assigned material.
Examination of anatomic and histologic material. The student will be responsible for being able to identify items specified in the laboratory guide handout. Material may be added to or deleted from this list as the instructor deems necessary.
Physiology exercises will be performed by the students carefully following the protocols within the laboratory guide. Any deviations from the prescribed procedures will be explained at the beginning of the laboratory session. On occasion, the student may have to prepare a written report for the laboratory exercise.
Laboratory exercise content may be augmented by assigned readings, Internet searches, or video presentations.
The quizzes used to test the students’ knowledge may use specimens or illustrations.
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 or equivalent is strongly recommended.
Prior courses in mathematics and physics or chemistry would be useful.
Two examinations, as specified in the Grading Section below. Two practical examinations with a good attendance record and active participation.
Lecture Laboratory
During this course, the student will have the opportunity to become conversant with and knowledgeable about the physiology of the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems so that she or he may be able to:
  • write Poiseuille's Law, and describe how each term affects flow;
  • describe the regulation of hemodynamics and the events of the cardiac cycle;
  • associate functions to arteries, arterioles, capillaries, & veins;
  • outline the mechanisms of resistance to infection;
  • list and discuss nonspecific immune responses:
  • compare and contrast the three complement pathways
  • discuss the mechanisms of humoral immunity
  • outline the processes of cell-mediated immunity
  • list the gas laws and describe their operation with respect to the transport of gases in body;
  • describe how the factors involved in the regulation of respiration;
  • describe the regulation of digestive secretion;
  • outline the processes of metabolism and energetics.
  • describe the formation of urine;
  • describe the regulation of acid-base balance;
  • outline the determination genetic, gonadal, and phenotypic sex;
  • outline gamete formation;
  • list the components of the female hormonal system;
  • discuss immunological aspects of pregnancy;
  • describe gestational physiology;
  • outline the events of parturition and lactation;
  • discuss the special conditions of neonatal physiology.
During this laboratory course, the student will have the opportunity to become conversant with and knowledgeable about the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems so that she or he may be able to:
  • record and identify components of EKGs;
  • successfully determine blood pressure in human subjects;
  • describe factors affecting cardiovascular homeostasis;
  • identify the components of the immune system;
  • record and identify spirometric volumes and FEVs in human subjects;
  • demonstrate the effects of ventilation on breath holding;
  • map the vascular components of the digestive system;
  • identify microanatomic specimens of the human digestive system;
  • describe factors affecting basal metabolic rate;
  • discuss urinary function;
  • describe the anatomy of the urinary system;
  • demonstrate fluid and electrolyte homeostatic mechanisms;
  • identify microanatomic specimens of the human urinary system;
  • describe the anatomy of the female reproductive system;
  • describe the anatomy of the male reproductive system;
  • identify microanatomic specimens of the human reproductive system;
  • solve human pedigree genetics problems;
  • describe the events in vertebrate embryology.
This is the Fineprint Section
Course content.
What you need to know. Anatomy and physiology are demanding fields of study requiring the student to be disciplined and attentive to detail. There is much to learn and a very short period in which to learn it. Students who attend the lectures regularly, take adequate notes during lecture, and study regularly do well in these courses. While there are no formal prerequisites at this time, a baseline of knowledge, as might be learned in high school, is presumed:  a working command of spoken and written English; the ability to perform basic arithmetic operations; an elementary knowledge of plane and solid geometry; basic biology, including structure of the cell, evolution, and development; basic chemistry, including atomic structure, elements, compounds, and energy; and some knowledge of physics, such as the laws of motion. Add to this list as a very strongly suggested skill set is the ability to use a computer, e-mail, and the Internet productively. Not only will this allow you to use the lecture-note pages to the fullest, but it will also permit easy and rapid communication between you and your instructor, you and your classmates, you and your University.
This may look like a formidable list, but do not be put off by it; there is nothing in the list that should not be expected of any student taking a college biology course, let alone anatomy and physiology. Except for the language issue, any deficit can be overcome by additional reading and study by the student at the appropriate time.
Studying. I am not an expert in designing effective study habits, but I will offer a few suggestions:
1.  Be interested in the material. I believe that even if every other suggestion is ignored, when a student is truly interested in a subject, he or she takes the time to explore it in greater detail. The more one investigates something, the more expert one becomes.
2.  Study often. Try not to wait until the night before a midterm or final to cram. If one studies a little bit after each class session, not only does the material seem more familiar, but there is the chance for additional consolidation of the material into memory. Some authorities recommend at least two hours of study for each hour of lecture material.
3.  Study what is important. Always study the material presented in lecture and any assigned reading. I would be remiss if I did not emphasize how important it is to go to class. Additional reading of the textbook or linked web pages should not be ignored, but if pressed for study time, go with learning the material that the test is known to cover.
4.  Generate questions and answers. And do not make them trivially simple. Test them out on other students in the class. Solve problems. Use the study/quiz questions in your textbook.
5.  Study as a group. If the group members test one another, make sure that at least one person in the group knows the correct answer to the test question.
6.  Seek extra help. As with studying, do not wait until the last minute. For one thing, you will have lost the context of the problem. If you do not understand something, ask the instructor after class, or ask your laboratory teaching assistant, or e-mail the instructor.
7.  Use Blackboard™. To help you with this course, a Blackboard™ site has been set up. That site has useful items and links that can improve your studying and grade in this course. Here are some of the components of Blackboard™:
  • Course Information  There is a copy of the syllabus here, instructions on how to log on to the textbook website, and a link to the student website.
  • Course Materials  Study guides, learning objectives, and links to learning activities are in this area.
  • Assessment Quizzes  This section includes quizzes for each chapter.
  • Discussion Board  This is a good place to ask questions or peruse the questions and answers of other students.
Format. Lecture examinations (and, if given, quizzes) will be in multiple-choice/matching/true-false format. Unless otherwise noted, questions will be based on the material presented in lecture; the presentations available through the Blackboard system will serve as a guide for the material covered. This statement does not preclude the possibility of questions being asked which might serve to test the student’s ability to visualize, analyze, or interpret other data germane to the field of inquiry. In addition, questions will not just test rote memorization of data, but some may require the student to analyze data to arrive at the correct answer.
From time to time, questions may be added as lateral-thinking challenges to the student. Answering these questions is voluntary on the part of the student, and any answer, or lack thereof, will in no way affect the grade earned by the student on the didactic portion of the examination.
Exam protocol. Examinations must be considered to be learning experiences, and as such, should primarily be used to assess a student’s level of knowledge. It is incumbent upon the student to read the examination instructions carefully, to heed any additions or corrections indicated by the instructor, and, if possible, to ask the instructor if something is not clearly explained or questioned. Be aware, however, that it may not be possible to answer such questions because to do so would betray the answer.
If an examination is presented through the course-management system (e.g., Blackboard), the student must treat the examination as an individual effort; thus, while collaboration with others, consultation with experts, the Internet, etc., are strictly forbidden, the student may use any material related to the lecture presentations (e.g., the presentations themselves, lecture notes, and the textbook).
All exams must be submitted by the designated end time for that examination; failure to submit the exam by that time will result in a diminution of the grade for the examination.
Under extraordinary circumstances, and only with the consent of the instructor, a student may begin and complete the exam outside of the scheduled time parameters.
Challenges. Any challenge to a question on an exam or to a grade earned on an exam must be submitted in writing by the class following the posting or review of the answers or grades for that exam.
Missed exams. No makeup examination will be given except for one missed due to extraordinary circumstances. In those cases of genuine emergency, prior notice or subsequent documentation must be provided in order for a makeup to be allowed. Failure to do so will result in a grade of zero being posted for that exam. Vide supra for information on how to contact me.
Athletics. Academics has priority over sports. If there is a conflict between sports travel and course work that must be completed, it is the responsibility of the student to ensure that arrangements have been made with the instructor to clear any missing assignments or examinations prior to the final exam in the course.
Extra credit projects. No. Why not?
  • To be fair, an extra credit project, if offered to one student, must be offered to all students.
  • The time spent on an extra credit project would better be used in studying the assigned material.

Classroom behavior.
Attendance. While attendance is not taken on a weekly basis in a large lecture course such an Anatomy & Physiology, and there is no attendance component in the determination of the grade, failure of the student to attend lecture on a regular basis could adversely affect a student’s performance on the tests, not to mention that the student has not been able to benefit from the presentation of the material.
Deportment. Proper class deportment is expected. Questions that seek to clarify or expand the lecture material are always welcome. Disruptive classroom behavior will not be tolerated, and frivolous questions that are totally off-topic, persistent argumentative questions, or questions that only serve as self-aggrandizement fall within the purview of such behavior. Students engaged in such unsociable activity will be asked to leave. If the offender or offenders cannot be identified, then the lecture will be terminated, but the class will be responsible for whatever material would have been covered. Impolite behavior, such as wearing a baseball cap indoors, is merely gauche, not disruptive, and so, cannot be barred.
Portable communication devices. The use of beepers or cellular phones during class can be quite disruptive to the lecture environment. Therefore, all beepers and cellular phones must be turned off (or placed in vibrate mode) prior to entering the lecture room. Exceptions to this policy must be cleared with the instructor. Students who engage in text-messaging during class are not only being rude to the instructor and their fellow students, but are also depriving themselves of the class content. Violation of this directive will be considered equivalent to disruptive classroom behavior.
Many circumstances may require a modification of the course content or schedule of events (such as a school closure on a scheduled examination date); the instructor reserves the right to make such modifications with appropriate notification. If such a change is necessary, a notice will be posted via Blackboard™ to call the student’s attention to it.

Your overall course averages will be determined by the following: 

Lecture Grading    Exam 1      45%
Final Exam   
Laboratory Grading    Quiz 1      40%
Quiz 2      40%
Attendance &   

The assignment of letter grades to one’s overall course average will be determined by the following rule: 

Score Grade
>= 93.0 A
90.0–92.9 A−
87.0–89.9 B+
84.0–86.9 B
80.0–83.9 B−
77.0–79.9 C+
74.0–76.9 C
70.0–73.9 C−
67.0–69.9 D+
64.0–66.9 D
60.0–63.9 D−
< 60.0 F

Grades on a particular examination should always be viewed in a comparative light, and if a letter grade has been attached to the exam, that letter grade indicates the position of the earned score on that exam within the ABCDF–grading system.
For further information on the CPS policy on grading, please see the Student Handbook, pages 30–31.

Academic Assistance.
The College of Professional Studies has academic and student support services; questions not answered by the web page can addressed by communicating with an Academic & Student Support Specialist at 617.373.2400, or toll free 877.668.7727, or If you have special needs because of learning disabilities or other kinds of disabilities, please feel free to discuss these with me so that the proper accommodations can be arranged, or contact the Disability Resource Center. For more details on the services Northeastern University offers you, please see the CPS resources and services web page.
Conformity with the Code of Student Conduct and sanction information can be found on the CPS general regulations web page.
Academic honesty.
The student is encouraged to study with other students, to share notes and ideas. All examinations, laboratory exercises, and other assignments, must be completed by the student alone. Examinations and quizzes administered in this class during previous quarters are not available for review by the student, and any student who reviews such will be considered to have violated the policies on academic honesty. Neither this nor any other form of academic dishonesty will be tolerated. In the frame below is Northeastern’s Academic Honesty and Integrity Policy: