Week Date Lecture
I 09 September Review of Thoracic Anatomy & Histology
Anatomy notes
Thorax | Respiratory system

II 16 September Pulmonary Anatomy, Ventilation, & Circulation
[ Guyton: 37–38 ]
Guyton ch37 ppt | Guyton ch38 ppt | Physiology notes | Physiology outline

III 23 September Respiratory Gas Exchange & Transport
[ Guyton: 39–40 ]
Guyton ch39 ppt | Guyton ch40 ppt

IV 30 September Regulation of Respiration | Respiratory Insufficiency
[ Guyton: 41–42 ]
Guyton ch41 ppt :: notes | Guyton ch42 ppt

V 07 October Branchial, Pharyngeal, & Respiratory System Embryology
notes :: clinical problems :: images
VI 14 October Exam 1
[ sample exam ]

Review of the anatomy of the heart
notes :: images

VII 21 October Medical Physics of Pressure, Flow, & Resistance
Vascular Functioning
[ Guyton: 14–15 ]
Guyton ch14 ppt :: notes | Guyton ch15 ppt :: notes

VIII 28 October More on Vascular Functioning
[ Guyton: 16–17 ]
Guyton ch16 ppt :: notes | Guyton ch17 ppt :: notes

IX 04 November Exam 2
[ sample exam ]

Regulation of Blood Pressure
[ Guyton: 18 ]
Guyton ch18 ppt :: notes

Week Date Lecture
X 11 November Veterans Day
XI 18 November Integrated Pressure Control
[ Guyton: 19 ]
Guyton ch19 ppt :: notes

Cardiac Output
[ Guyton: 20 ]
Guyton ch20 ppt :: notes

Coronary Circulation & Ischemic Heart Disease
[ Guyton: 21 ]
Guyton ch21 ppt :: notes

XII 25 November Thanksgiving Recess
XIII 02 December Cardiovascular System Embryology
long notes :: short notes :: clinical problems :: animations
Cardiac Failure
[ Guyton: 22 ]
Guyton ch22 ppt :: notes

XIV 09 December Valvular Disease
[ Guyton: 23 ]
Guyton ch23 ppt :: notes

Circulatory Shock
[ Guyton: 24 ]
Guyton ch24 ppt :: notes

XV 16 December Final Exam
[ sample exam ]

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Course Description
Considers the structure of the human body, highlighting features of clinical importance. Covers the musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. Also includes cadaver laboratory sessions.
Class lectures based upon the distributed outlines. This material may, from time to time, be augmented by assigned readings, Internet searches, or video presentations.
Exams will be based on the lecture presentations and any other assigned material.
PA students only.
It is presumed that the student has had a two-semester (three-quarter), introductory, college-level anatomy & physiology course.
Prior courses in mathematics, physics, and chemistry will be useful.
Two examinations , as specified in the Grading Section below.

Course Objectives During this course, the student will have the opportunity to become conversant with and knowledgeable about the anatomy & physiology of skin and the musculoskeletal and nervous systems so that she or he may be able to:
  • identify the topographic anatomical landmarks of the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and extremities;
  • use general terms to identify relationships of anatomic structures (e.g. cephalad, caudad, lateral, medial) and the planes of section of the body (e.g. sagittal, coronal, transverse), as well as demonstrate how to use these anatomical landmarks and general terms to describe the position of a lesion anywhere on the surface of the body;
  • identify and describe the functional anatomy of organs of the immune system (lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, etc.);
  • describe the processes of lymphopoiesis and granulopoiesis, identifying the cells at each stage of the processes;
  • distinguish between the classical, alternate, and lecten pathways of the complement system;
  • outline the steps involved in the formation of the active products of complement;
  • discuss the major structures of the nasal cavity, the pharynx, and the larynx, and describe the technique of tracheal intubation;
  • dentify the five lobes of the lungs and the major airway components;
  • diagram quantitatively the changes in intra-alveolar and intrapleural pressure during inspiration and expiration and describe the anatomic movements that bring about these changes;
  • discuss the following and how they are affected by specific diseases:  lung volumes and capacities, resistance to air flow, compliance, surfactant, dead space, alveolar ventilation;
  • explain the functional significance of the oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve;
  • discuss the oxygen partial pressure (tension) and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin;
  • recognize the basic terminology and general qualitative chemistry related to carbon dioxide transport in blood;
  • discuss the normal values of oxygen partial pressure, oxygen saturation, and carbon dioxide partial pressure for arterial and mixed venous blood;
  • predict the blood gas consequences of a change in the ventilation/perfusion ratio;
  • describe the general features of the central nervous system control of breathing on the pH of the blood.;
  • discuss the parameters of pH regulation in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments;
  • explain how the respiratory rate affects the pH of the blood;
  • explain the response of acclimatization to high altitude;
  • describe the atria, ventricles, and valves of the heart and name the components of the conducting system of the heart;
  • describe the blood supply and venous drainage the heart and its significance to patients at risk for cardiovascular disease;
  • identify the location and structures of the great vessels and describe their relationship to other structures in the thorax;
  • identify the location of the major venous and arterial vessels of the thorax, abdomen, neck, and extremities;
  • describe the electrophysiological basis of the electrocardiogram including:  intra- and extracellular distribution of ions, membrane potential difference, action potentials, pacemaker activity, and propagation of electrical activity in the heart;
  • discuss the precise relationship between the following for a complete cardiac cycle (heart beat):  electrical activity, mechanical activity (contraction), valve action, blood flow, blood pressure in each chamber, heart sounds;
  • analyze the cardiovascular system in terms of two fundamental relationships:  cardiac output and blood pressure as well as explain the clinical techniques for measurement of those parameters;
  • list at least two determinants of heart rate;
  • describe at least two determinants of stroke volume as well as the basic mechanisms of inotropic drugs;
  • neural, hormonal and humoral controls of arteriolar smooth muscle (resistance vessels), and relate them to hypertension, its pharmacologic control, and the effect of aging on blood pressure;
  • define cardiac contractility in operational terms;
  • explain the function of the carotid sinus pressoreceptor reflex;
  • discuss the principles of capillary exchange and the causes of edema;
  • describe the distinctive features for each of the following circulations, and relate them to clinical abnormalities:  pulmonary, cerebral, splanchnic, renal, skeletal muscle, skin;
  • explain the cardiovascular response involved in going from a supine to an upright position;
  • explain the cardiovascular response to exercise.

This is the Fineprint Section
Course content.
What you need to know. Anatomy and physiology are demanding fields of study, particularly within your chosen profession as Physician Assistant, requiring the student to be disciplined and attentive to detail. There is much to learn and a very short period in which to learn it. Students who attend the lectures regularly, take adequate notes during lecture, and study regularly do well in these courses. Besides the formal prerequisites, a baseline of knowledge is presumed:  a working command of spoken and written English; the ability to perform basic arithmetic operations; an elementary knowledge of plane and solid geometry; basic biology, including structure of the cell, evolution, and development; basic chemistry, including atomic structure, elements, compounds, and energy; and some knowledge of physics, such as the laws of motion. Add to this list as a very strongly suggested skill set is the ability to use a computer, e-mail, and the Internet productively. Not only will this allow you to use the lecture-note pages to the fullest, but it will also permit easy and rapid communication between you and your instructor, you and your classmates, you and your College.
This may look like a formidable list, but do not be put off by it; there is nothing in the list that should not be expected of any student taking a graduate science course, let alone anatomy and physiology. Except for the language issue, any deficit can be overcome by additional reading and study by the student at the appropriate time.
Studying. I am not an expert in designing effective study habits, but I will offer a few suggestions:
1.  Be interested in the material. I believe that even if every other suggestion is ignored, when a student is truly interested in a subject, he or she takes the time to explore it in greater detail. The more one investigates something, the more expert one becomes.
2.  Study often. Try not to wait until the night before a midterm or final to cram. If one studies a little bit after each class session, not only does the material seem more familiar, but there is the chance for additional consolidation of the material into memory. Some authorities recommend at least two hours of study for each hour of lecture material.
3.  Study what is important. Always study the material presented in lecture and any assigned reading. I would be remiss if I did not emphasize how important it is to go to class. Additional reading of the textbook or linked web pages should not be ignored, but if pressed for study time, go with learning the material that the test is known to cover.
4.  Generate questions and answers. And do not make them trivially simple. Test them out on other students in the class. Solve problems. Use the study/quiz questions in your textbook.
5.  Study as a group. If the group members test one another, make sure that at least one person in the group knows the correct answer to the test question.
6.  Seek extra help. As with studying, do not wait until the last minute. For one thing, you will have lost the context of the problem. If you do not understand something, ask the instructor after class, or ask your laboratory teaching assistant, or e-mail the instructor.
7.  Use Blackboard™. To help you with this course, a Blackboard™ site has been set up. That site has useful items and links that can improve your studying and grade in this course. Here are some of the components of Blackboard™:
  • Course Information  There is a copy of the syllabus here, instructions on how to log on to the textbook website, and a link to the student website.
  • Course Materials  Study guides, learning objectives, and links to learning activities are in this area.
  • Assessment Quizzes  This section includes quizzes for each chapter.
  • Discussion Board  This is a good place to ask questions or peruse the questions and answers of other students.
  • Tools  Grades will be posted in this section.

Format. Lecture examinations (and, if given, quizzes) will a mixture of essay/short-answer/identification and multiple-choice/true-false questions. Unless otherwise noted, questions will be based on the material presented in lecture; the lecture outlines available through the syllabus web page links will serve as a guide for the material covered. This statement does not preclude the possibility of questions being asked which might serve to test the student’s ability to visualize, analyze, or interpret other data germane to the field of inquiry. In addition, questions will not just test rote memorization of data, but some may require the student to analyze data to arrive at the correct answer.
From time to time, questions may be added as lateral-thinking challenges to the student. Answering these questions is voluntary on the part of the student, and any answer, or lack thereof, will in no way affect the grade earned by the student on the didactic portion of the examination.
Exam protocol. Students must put away all study materials (textbooks, notes, review cards, whatever) at the time the examinations are handed out; further review of material once the exam has been distributed will not be permitted. It is incumbent upon the student to read the examination instructions carefully, to heed any additions or corrections indicated by the instructor, and to ask the instructor if something is not clearly explained or questioned. Be aware, however, that it may not be possible to answer such questions because to do so would betray the answer.
All exams must be returned by the designated end time for that examination; failure to turn in the exam by that time will result in a zero for the examination. If a student is late for a scheduled exam, the student will be permitted to take that examination provided that no student has already completed the test and left the room; in addition, the student must complete the exam and turn it in by the designated end time for that examination.
During an examination, the student may not listen to any playback device, digital or analog, including, but not limited to, tape recorders, CD players, camcorders, &c. The use of calculators requires permission of the instructor.
Challenges. Any challenge to a question on an exam or to a grade earned on an exam must be submitted in writing by the class following the posting or review of the answers or grades for that exam.
Missed exams. No makeup examination will be given except for one missed due to extraordinary circumstances. In those cases of genuine emergency, prior notice or subsequent documentation must be provided in order for a makeup to be allowed. Failure to do so will result in a grade of zero being posted for that exam. Vide supra for information on how to contact me.
Athletics. Academics has priority over sports. If there is a conflict between sports travel and course work that must be completed, it is the responsibility of the student to ensure that arrangements have been made with the instructor to clear any missing assignments or examinations prior to the final exam in the course.
Extra credit projects. No. Why not?
  • To be fair, an extra credit project, if offered to one student, must be offered to all students.
  • The time spent on an extra credit project would better be used in studying the assigned material.

Classroom behavior.
Attendance. While attendance is not taken on a weekly basis in a large lecture course such an Anatomy & Physiology, and there is no attendance component in the determination of the grade, failure of the student to attend lecture on a regular basis could adversely affect a student’s performance on the tests, not to mention that the student has not been able to benefit from the presentation of the material.
Deportment. Proper class deportment is expected. Questions that seek to clarify or expand the lecture material are always welcome. Disruptive classroom behavior will not be tolerated, and frivolous questions that are totally off-topic, persistent argumentative questions, or questions that only serve as self-aggrandizement fall within the purview of such behavior. Students engaged in such unsociable activity will be asked to leave. If the offender or offenders cannot be identified, then the lecture will be terminated, but the class will be responsible for whatever material would have been covered. Impolite behavior, such as wearing a baseball cap indoors, is merely gauche, not disruptive, and so, cannot be barred.
Portable communication devices. The use of beepers or cellular phones during class can be quite disruptive to the lecture environment. Therefore, all beepers and cellular phones must be turned off (or placed in vibrate mode) prior to entering the lecture room. Exceptions to this policy must be cleared with the instructor. Students who engage in text-messaging during class are not only being rude to the instructor and their fellow students, but are also depriving themselves of the class content. Violation of this directive will be considered equivalent to disruptive classroom behavior.
Many circumstances may require a modification of the course content or schedule of events (such as a school closure on a scheduled examination date); the instructor reserves the right to make such modifications with appropriate notification. If such a change is necessary, a notice will be posted via Blackboard™ to call the student’s attention to it.

Your overall course averages will be determined by the following: 

Lecture Grading    Exam 1      30%
Exam 2      30%
Final Exam   

The assignment of letter grades to one’s overall course average will be determined by the following rule: 

Score Grade
>= 93.0 A
90.0–92.9 A−
87.0–89.9 B+
83.0–86.9 B
80.0–82.9 B−
77.0–79.9 C+
73.0–76.9 C
< 73.0 F

Grades on a particular examination should always be viewed in a comparative light, and if a letter grade has been attached to the exam, that letter grade indicates the position of the earned score on that exam within the ABCDF–grading system.
For further information on the graduate policy on grading, please see the Bouvé College Graduate Policies and Regulations, page 6.

Academic Assistance.
The new wave of tutorial assistance appears through the Internet:  ®SMARTHINKING.com.
Bouvé College provides a Graduate Student Services web page.
Conformity with the Code of Student Conduct and sanction information can be found in the Bouvé College Graduate Policies and Regulations.
Academic honesty.
The student is encouraged to study with other students, to share notes and ideas. All examinations, laboratory exercises, and other assignments, must be completed by the student alone. Examinations and quizzes administered in this class during previous quarters are not available for review by the student, and any student who reviews such will be considered to have violated the policies on academic honesty. Neither this nor any other form of academic dishonesty will be tolerated. In the frame below is Northeastern’s Academic Honesty and Integrity Policy:

PA-6200 — Anatomy & Physiology 1
Syllabus Agreement

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I acknowledge that I have received information regarding this course. Further, I understand that this information is available in written form within the course syllabus. I have reviewed the information with the instructor, I have asked questions for clarification or additional information, and I thoroughly understand my responsibilities as I participate in this course. The information addressed in the syllabus includes:
  • Policies and procedures
  • Assignments and tests
  • Scheduled dates for lectures, assignments, and tests
  • Grading policies
  • Instructor contact information
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