The Burtonmore Herbarium
Classification of the spermatophytes
This page continues the view of plant phylogenetic classification, presenting the spermatophytes (seed plants) to the ordinal level.
It has been drawn from a number of different sources, some referenced, some not.
It represents, in the end, my opinion of what is the best current phylogenetic interpretation.
Note that I have included extinct forms (indicated by the prefix †) whenever there is a good consensus as to their position
and also because the Burtonmore Herbarium possesses a few fossils in its collection.
The notation    indicates a link to the ordinal page listing of Burtonmore specimens.

Click on a group to go directly to that group within the classification:
Gymnospermae | Magnoliophyta | Lilianae | Eudicotidae | ‘Superrosids’ | ‘Superasterids’


└ Spermatophyta   [phanerogams; seed plants] α, δ
├ Gymnospermae γ
├ Cycadophyta   [cycads]
├ †Medullosales   [e.g., †Neuropteris]
└ Cycadales   [e.g., Cycas, Macrozamia, Zamia]
└       —
├ Ginkgophyta
└ Ginkgoales   [e.g., †Yimaia, Ginkgo]  
└       —
├ Cupressophyta   [junipers, redwoods, etc.]
└ Cupressales   [e.g., †Mesocyparis, Metasequoia, Taxodum, Thuja]  
└       —
├ Pinophyta   [conifers]
├ †Cordaitales   [e.g., †Cordaites, †Shanxioxylon]
├       —
├ †Voltziales   [e.g., †Voltzia]
└ †Vojnovskyales   [†Vojnovskya (=†Gaussia)]
└ Pinales   [Coniferales; e.g., Picea, Araucaria, Taxus]  
└ Gnetophyta   [gnetophytes]
├ Ephedrales   [Ephedra]
├ Gnetales   [Gnetum]
└ Welwitschiales   [Welwitschia]
└ Magnoliophyta   [Angiospermae]
├ Amborellales   [Amborella]
└       —
├ Nymphaeales   [water lilies, et al.]  
└       —
├ Austrobaileyales   [e.g., Illicium]
└       — [Mesangiospermae]
├       —
├ Magnolianae
├       —
├ Piperales   [pepper, kava, wild ginger]  
└ Canellales   [e.g., Canella, Drimys, Tasmannia]
└       —
├ Laurales   [laurels, et al.]  
└ Magnoliales   [custard apples, magnolias, et al.]  
└ Chloranthales   [e.g., Chloranthus, Hedyosmum]
└       —
├ Lilianae   [monocots]  
├ Acorales   [calamids]
└       —
├ Alismatales   [alismatids]  
└       —
├ Petrosaviales   [Japonolirion, Petrosavia]
└       —
├       —
├ Dioscoreales   [yams, et al.]
└ Pandanales   [screw-pines]
└       —
├ Liliales   [lilies]  
└       —
├ Asparagales   [asparagoid lilies]  
└       —   [commelinids]
├ Arecales   [palms, et al.]  
├ Poales   [grasses, bromeliads, & sedges]  
└       —  
├ Zingiberales   [‘bananas’ & ‘gingers’]
└ Commelinales   [dayflowers, bloodworts, & spiderworts]  
└       —
├ Ceratophyllales   [Ceratophyllum]
└ Eudicotidae   [eudicotyledons]  
├ Ranunculales   [poppies, barberries, & buttercups]  
└       —
├ Proteales   [plane trees, macadamias, & lotuses]  
└       —
├ Trochodendrales   [e.g., Trochodendron, Tetracentron, †Zizyphoides]
└       —
├ Buxales   [e.g., Pachysandra]  
└       —
├ Gunnerales   [Gunnera, Myrothamnus]
└ Pentapetalae β
├ Dilleniales   [e.g., Hibbertia]
└       —
├ ‘superrosids’
├ Saxifragales   [e.g., stonecrops, witch hazels, peonies]  
└ ‘rosids’
├ Vitales   [e.g., grapevine, Virginia creeper]  
└ ‘eurosids’
├ Fabidae
├ Zygophyllales   [e.g., bean-caper, rhatany]
└       —
├ COM clade
├ Celastrales   [e.g., bittersweets]  
└       —
├ Malpighiales   [e.g., willow, violet, coca, Poinsettia]  
└ Oxalidales   [e.g., Afrostyrax, Averrhoa]  
└ N2-fixing clade
├ Fabales   [e.g., legumes, milkworts]  
└       —
├ Rosales   [e.g., roses, hemp, elms]  
└       —
├ Fagales   [e.g., beeches, birches, walnuts]  
└ Cucurbitales   [e.g., begonias, gourds, melons]  
└ Malvidae
├       —
├ Geraniales   [e.g., geraniums, bridal wreaths]  
└ Myrtales   [e.g., loosestrifes, pomegranates, evening primroses]  
└       —
├ Crossosomatales   [e.g., Staphylea, Strasburgeria]
└       —
├ Picramniales   [Alvaradoa, Nothotalisia, & Picramnia]
└       —
├ Sapindales   [e.g., citrus, maples, horse chestnut]  
└       —
├ Huerteales   [e.g., Tapiscia, Huertea]
└       —
├ Brassicacales   [e.g., papayas, mustards, cabbages]  
└ Malvales   [e.g., balsa, linden, cacao, hibiscus, cotton]  
└ ‘superasterids’
├ Santalales   [e.g., sandalwood, mistletoe]
└       —
├ Berberidopsidales   [e.g., olivillo, voqui fuco]
└       —
└ Caryophyllales   [e.g., cacti, carnations]  
└ ‘euasterids’
├ Cornales   [e.g., dogwoods, tupelos]  
└       —
├ Ericales [e.g., tea, blueberries, azaleas]  
└       —
├ Campanulidae
├ Aquifoliales   [e.g., hollies]  
└       —
├ Asterales   [e.g., sunflowers, lettuce, daisies]  
├ Escalloniales   [e.g., Anopteris, Valdivia]
└       —
├ Bruniales   [e.g., Berzelia, Columellia]
└       —
├ Apiales   [e.g., carrots, parsley, English ivy]  
└       —
├ Dipsacales   [e.g., honeysuckles]  
└ Paracryphiales   [e.g., Quintinia]
└ Lamiidae
├ Icacinales   [e.g., Miquelia, Oncotheca]
└       —
├ Metteniusales   [e.g., Calatola, Emmotum]
└       —
├ Garryales   [Garrya, Aucuba, & Eucommia]
└       —
├ Boraginales   [e.g., comfey, heliotropes, forget-me-nots]  
├ Gentianales   [e.g., coffee, plumerias, bedstraws]  
├ Vahliales   [Vahlia]
├ Lamiales   [e.g., lilacs, ash trees, mints]  
└ Solanales   [e.g., tobacco, potatoes, morning glories]  




schnoerkel
Notes
 
α systematic position of the Spermatophyta
β phylogeny of the Pentapetalae is adapted from L. Zeng, et al., 2017
γ the phylogeny of the gymnosperms is based on the data presented by J.T. Clarke, et al., 2011
δ this classification of the gymnosperm-angiosperm transition is missing the †Pteridospermatophyta, and not just because the group is polyphyletic, but because, as yet, there is not a consensus phylogeny for the likes of the glossopterids, bennettitales, or †Caytoniales — I shall, in the future, create a separate page for these and fit them into the general scheme


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