Carl F. Moxey, PhD
Senior Lecturer in Biology
Northeastern University,
College of Professional Studies

Fall Semester 2016
Lecture:  Tuesday 515 PM – 745 PM
Forsyth 128
Laboratory:  Tuesday 750 PM – 950 PM
Behrakis 720

KS Saladin, 2015, Anatomy and Physiology. The Unity of Form and Function, 7th edition,
[ ISBN 0073403717 ]
Students having the sixth edition, or equivalent textbook, need not upgrade

P Hampf, A Roth, M-S Potts-Santone, & A Gilbert, 2014, Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology,
McGraw-Hill. [ ISBN 978-1-259-38359-5 ]

Week Date Lecture Laboratory
I Tu 06 September Humans as Animalia
Terminology and Body Organization

[ Saladin:  1; Atlas A ]

Introduction to A&P Lab
A how-to on lab procedures:
Uncertainty in Measurements 1
Tutorial on the Use of Significant Figures 1a
Writing Lab Reports
II Tu 13 September
Chemistry Basics
[ Saladin:  2 ]

[ Saladin:  2 ]
Student Preview: 
Vertebral Column and Thorax
  Bones of the vertebral column
and thoracic cage
[ Hampf, §1, p 18ff, §2, pp 55–58 ]
III Tu 20 September Basic Cell Biology
[ Saladin:  3 ]
Student Preview: 
Upper Extremity and
Lower Extremity
Bones of the upper extremity
and lower extremity
[ Hampf, §1, p 31ff, §2, pp 59–64 ]
IV Tu 27 September
Membrane Transport Systems
[ Saladin:  3 ]

Student Preview: 
Cranial and facial bones, sutures
[ Hampf, §1, p 21ff, §2, pp 45–54 ]
Week Date Lecture Laboratory
V Tu 04 October
Genetics and Cellular Function
[ Saladin:  4 ]

Exam 1

Lab Exam 1:

A Collection of Bone Images
A List of What You Must Know

VI Tu 11 October
Integumentary System
[ Saladin:  6 ]

Basic Histology
[ lecture outline ]
Microscopic examination of tissue types 2
[ in-class quiz ]
[ Saladin:  5 ]
VII Tu 18 October
Design of the Skeleton
[ Saladin:  8 ]

Bone, Cartilage, & Osteogenesis
[ Saladin:  7 ]

  Skin rat; examine fascial planes
  Dissect muscle groups as instructed
Rat Dissection Images
[ Hampf, §1, p 43–66, §2, p 96 passim ]
VIII Tu 25 October
Articulations & Movements

[ Saladin:  9 ]

IX Tu 01 November
Membrane Potentials
Action Potentials
[ Saladin:  12—pp 447–452 ]

Muscle Contraction:
Glycerinated muscle, pHiLS exercise
[ Hampf, §1, pp 67–88 ]
X Tu 08 November
Muscle Microanatomy & Physiology
[ Saladin:  11 ]

Exam 2

Lab Exam 2:

Muscle anatomy and contraction;

XI Tu 15 November
Background Assigned Material:

Spinal Cord Anatomy & Function
Peripheral Nerves & Reflexes
[ Saladin:  13 ]

Nervous System Development and Anatomy
[ Saladin:  14 ]

Anatomy of the Spinal Cord and Brain
[ Hampf, §1, p 123–134, §2, pp 140–145 ]
XII Tu 22 November
Autonomic & Motor Systems
[ Saladin:  15 ]

XIII Tu 29 November
Neurophysiologic Input:
Sensory Systems

[ Saladin:  16.1–16.3 ]

[ Saladin:  16.5 ]

Sensory Systems,
including vision and hearing
[ Hampf, §1, p 135–163 ]
XIV Tu 06 December
Basics of Endocrinology
[ Saladin:  17 ]

Endocrine System
[ Hampf, §1, p 165–177 ]
XV Tu 13 December Final Exam

Lab Exam 3:

Neuroanatomy and sensory systems;

Contact me by email at
or by text-message or voice-mail at

Lecture Laboratory
Provides an overview of anatomic terminology and organization of the body. Presents the structure and function of cells and tissues. Includes the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary and musculoskeletal systems, joint structure and function, and the nervous and endocrine systems, including special senses. Studies the design of the human skeleton. Students perform dissection of the rat and other available anatomic specimens. Offers students an opportunity to learn the anatomic components of the body to understand their regional and systems relationships and to identify selected structures of the central nervous system by examining models and specimens to understand how the body obtains, processes, and reacts to information.
Class lectures based upon the distributed outlines. This material may, from time to time, be augmented by assigned readings, Internet searches, or video presentations.
Exams will be based on the lecture presentations and any other assigned material.
Examination of anatomic and histologic material. The student will be responsible for being able to identify items specified in the laboratory guide handout. Material may be added to or deleted from this list as the instructor deems necessary.
Physiology exercises will be performed by the students carefully following the protocols within the laboratory guide. Any deviations from the prescribed procedures will be explained at the beginning of the laboratory session. On occasion, the student may have to prepare a written report for the laboratory exercise.
Laboratory exercise content may be augmented by assigned readings, Internet searches, or video presentations.
The quizzes used to test the students’ knowledge may use specimens or illustrations.
CPS - Undergraduate level BIO 1200 (or equivalent), minimum grade of D-.
Prior courses in mathematics and physics or chemistry would be useful.
Three examinations, as specified in the Grading Section below. Three practical examinations with a good attendance record and active participation.
This two-part anatomy and physiology course concludes with BIO 1700/1701.
Lecture Laboratory
During this course, the student will have the opportunity to become conversant with and knowledgeable about the principles of cellular biology and the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary, musculoskeletal, nervous, and endocrine systems so that she or he may be able to:
  • position humans among the Animalia;
  • delineate the scope of anatomy and physiology;
  • describe the general hierarchical design of body systems;
  • describe the processes of homeostasis;
  • correctly use directional and relational terms
  • describe types of biological chemicals and their reactions;
  • diagram the structure of the cell membrane, and describe how substances can move across membranes;
  • describe the anatomy of the skin, with functional considerations of its different components;
  • give a detailed description of the structure of bone and cartilage along with the processes of osteogenesis;
  • classify the types of joints, describing their axes and movements;
  • describe how muscles can use the lever system of bones to create movement at a joint;
  • describe the characteristics of graded potentials;
  • diagram the events of action potentials;
  • describe the general anatomy of the central nervous system;
  • discuss how the embryology of the nervous system relates to its adult design;
  • list the components of the central and peripheral nervous systems;
  • discuss reflexes and their significance;
  • compare and contrast the anatomy and functioning of the brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum;
  • describe the general operations of sensory physiology, including reception & perception;
  • diagram the pathways of efferent signaling, listing the receptors, neurotransmitters, and responses in the autonomic nervous system;
  • describe muscle microanatomy and how it relates to the events of excitation-contraction coupling;
  • compare and contrast the structure and physiology of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle;
  • list the major endocrine glands of the body, classifying their hormones by chemical nature and postreceptor response.
During this laboratory course, the student will have the opportunity to become conversant with and knowledgeable about histology, the anatomy of the skeletal and muscular systems, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, and histology of the endocrine system so that she or he may be able to:
  • perform accurate measurements and calculations using significant digits correctly;
  • recognize and distinguish different tissue types;
  • list and identify the components of the axial skeleton;
  • identify the bones, sutures, projections, fossae, foramina, and other features of skull bones;
  • list and identify the components of the appendicular skeleton;
  • identify specified muscles in the trunk and upper and lower extremity, using the rat as a model anatomic specimen;
  • describe the gross anatomy of the thorax through dissection of the rat;
  • describe the anatomy of the urinary system;
  • describe the anatomy of the female reproductive system;
  • describe the anatomy of the male reproductive system;
  • demonstrate charge distribution across the cell membrane and explain how it may be manipulated;
  • describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the spinal cord;
  • characterize the neurological bases of human reflexes and cranial nerve testing;
  • diagram the gross anatomy of the mammalian eye and ear;
  • describe the basis for and performance of visual testing;
  • describe the mechanism for the production of tension in muscle fibers;
  • diagram length-tension relationships in muscle contraction;
  • measure twitch contraction summation to tetany;
  • distinguish the histologic and gross appearance of selected endocrine glands;
  • describe how metabolic rate is affected by thyroid hormone secretion.
  • use the Internet as a tool for gathering information;
  • achieve practical dexterity in dissection and keenness of observation.
This is the Fineprint Section
Course content.
What you need to know. Anatomy and physiology are demanding fields of study requiring the student to be disciplined and attentive to detail. There is much to learn and a very short period in which to learn it. Students who attend the lectures regularly, take adequate notes during lecture, and study regularly do well in these courses. While there are no formal prerequisites at this time, a baseline of knowledge, as might be learned in high school, is presumed:  a working command of spoken and written English; the ability to perform basic arithmetic operations; an elementary knowledge of plane and solid geometry; basic biology, including structure of the cell, evolution, and development; basic chemistry, including atomic structure, elements, compounds, and energy; and some knowledge of physics, such as the laws of motion. Add to this list as a very strongly suggested skill set is the ability to use a computer, e-mail, and the Internet productively. Not only will this allow you to use the lecture-note pages to the fullest, but it will also permit easy and rapid communication between you and your instructor, you and your classmates, you and your University.
This may look like a formidable list, but do not be put off by it; there is nothing in the list that should not be expected of any student taking a college biology course, let alone anatomy and physiology. Except for the language issue, any deficit can be overcome by additional reading and study by the student at the appropriate time.
Studying. I am not an expert in designing effective study habits, but I will offer a few suggestions:
1.  Be interested in the material. I believe that even if every other suggestion is ignored, when a student is truly interested in a subject, he or she takes the time to explore it in greater detail. The more one investigates something, the more expert one becomes.
2.  Study often. Try not to wait until the night before a midterm or final to cram. If one studies a little bit after each class session, not only does the material seem more familiar, but there is the chance for additional consolidation of the material into memory. Some authorities recommend at least two hours of study for each hour of lecture material.
3.  Study what is important. Always study the material presented in lecture and any assigned reading. I would be remiss if I did not emphasize how important it is to go to class. Additional reading of the textbook or linked web pages should not be ignored, but if pressed for study time, go with learning the material that the test is known to cover.
4.  Generate questions and answers. And do not make them trivially simple. Test them out on other students in the class. Solve problems. Use the study/quiz questions in your textbook.
5.  Study as a group. If the group members test one another, make sure that at least one person in the group knows the correct answer to the test question.
6.  Seek extra help. As with studying, do not wait until the last minute. For one thing, you will have lost the context of the problem. If you do not understand something, ask the instructor after class, or ask your laboratory teaching assistant, or e-mail the instructor.
7.  Use Blackboard™. To help you with this course, a Blackboard™ site has been set up. That site has useful items and links that can improve your studying and grade in this course. Here are some of the components of Blackboard™:
  • Syllabus and Resources  There is a copy of the syllabus here, instructions on how to log on to the textbook website, and a link to the student website.
  • Course Materials  Study guides, learning objectives, and links to learning activities are in this area.
  • Assessment Quizzes  This section includes quizzes for each chapter.
  • Discussion Board  This is a good place to ask questions or peruse the questions and answers of other students.
Format. Lecture examinations (and, if given, quizzes) will be in multiple-choice/matching/true-false format. Unless otherwise noted, questions will be based on the material presented in lecture; the presentations available through the Blackboard system will serve as a guide for the material covered. This statement does not preclude the possibility of questions being asked which might serve to test the student’s ability to visualize, analyze, or interpret other data germane to the field of inquiry. In addition, questions will not just test rote memorization of data, but some may require the student to analyze data to arrive at the correct answer.
From time to time, questions may be added as lateral-thinking challenges to the student. Answering these questions is voluntary on the part of the student, and any answer, or lack thereof, will in no way affect the grade earned by the student on the didactic portion of the examination.
Exam protocol. Examinations must be considered to be learning experiences, and as such, should primarily be used to assess a student’s level of knowledge. It is incumbent upon the student to read the examination instructions carefully, to heed any additions or corrections indicated by the instructor, and, if possible, to ask the instructor if something is not clearly explained or questioned. Be aware, however, that it may not be possible to answer such questions because to do so would betray the answer.
If an examination is presented through the course-management system (e.g., Blackboard), the student must treat the examination as an individual effort; thus, while collaboration with others, consultation with experts, the Internet, etc., are strictly forbidden, the student may use any material related to the lecture presentations (e.g., the presentations themselves, lecture notes, and the textbook).
All exams must be submitted by the designated end time for that examination; failure to submit the exam by that time will result in a diminution of the grade for the examination.
Under extraordinary circumstances, and only with the consent of the instructor, a student may begin and complete the exam outside of the scheduled time parameters.
Challenges. Any challenge to a question on an exam or to a grade earned on an exam must be submitted in writing by the class following the posting or review of the answers or grades for that exam.
Missed exams. No makeup examination will be given except for one missed due to extraordinary circumstances. In those cases of genuine emergency, prior notice or subsequent documentation must be provided in order for a makeup to be allowed. Failure to do so will result in a grade of zero being posted for that exam. Vide supra for information on how to contact me.
Athletics. Academics has priority over sports. If there is a conflict between sports travel and course work that must be completed, it is the responsibility of the student to ensure that arrangements have been made with the instructor to clear any missing assignments or examinations prior to the final exam in the course.
Extra credit projects. No. Why not?
  • To be fair, an extra credit project, if offered to one student, must be offered to all students.
  • The time spent on an extra credit project would better be used in studying the assigned material.

Classroom behavior.
Attendance. While attendance is not taken on a weekly basis in a large lecture course such an Anatomy & Physiology, and there is no attendance component in the determination of the grade, failure of the student to attend lecture on a regular basis could adversely affect a student’s performance on the tests, not to mention that the student has not been able to benefit from the presentation of the material.
Deportment. Proper class deportment is expected. Questions that seek to clarify or expand the lecture material are always welcome. Disruptive classroom behavior will not be tolerated, and frivolous questions that are totally off-topic, persistent argumentative questions, or questions that only serve as self-aggrandizement fall within the purview of such behavior. Students engaged in such unsociable activity will be asked to leave. If the offender or offenders cannot be identified, then the lecture will be terminated, but the class will be responsible for whatever material would have been covered. Impolite behavior, such as wearing a baseball cap indoors, is merely gauche, not disruptive, and so, cannot be barred.
Portable communication devices. The use of beepers or cellular phones during class can be quite disruptive to the lecture environment. Therefore, all beepers and cellular phones must be turned off (or placed in vibrate mode) prior to entering the lecture room. Exceptions to this policy must be cleared with the instructor. Students who engage in text-messaging during class are not only being rude to the instructor and their fellow students, but are also depriving themselves of the class content. Violation of this directive will be considered equivalent to disruptive classroom behavior.
Many circumstances may require a modification of the course content or schedule of events (such as a school closure on a scheduled examination date); the instructor reserves the right to make such modifications with appropriate notification. If such a change is necessary, a notice will be posted via Blackboard™ to call the student’s attention to it.
Your overall course averages will be determined by the following: 

Lecture Grading    Exam 1      25%
Exam 2      25%
Final Exam   
Laboratory Grading    Quiz 1      25%
Quiz 2      25%
Quiz 3      25%
Attendance &   

The assignment of letter grades to one’s overall course average will be determined by the following rule: 

Score Grade
>= 93.0 A
90.0–92.9 A−
87.0–89.9 B+
83.0–86.9 B
80.0–82.9 B−
77.0–79.9 C+
73.0–76.9 C
70.0–72.9 C−
67.0–69.9 D+
63.0–66.9 D
60.0–62.9 D−
< 60.0 F

Grades on a particular examination should always be viewed in a comparative light, and if a letter grade has been attached to the exam, that letter grade indicates the position of the earned score on that exam within the ABCDF–grading system.
For further information on the CPS policy on grading, please see the Student Handbook, pages 30–31.

Academic Assistance.
The College of Professional Studies has academic and student support services; questions not answered by the web page can addressed by communicating with an Academic & Student Support Specialist at 617.373.2400, or toll free 877.668.7727, or If you have special needs because of learning disabilities or other kinds of disabilities, please feel free to discuss these with me so that the proper accommodations can be arranged, or contact the Disability Resource Center. For more details on the services Northeastern University offers you, please see the CPS resources and services web page.
Conformity with the Code of Student Conduct and sanction information can be found on the CPS general regulations web page.
Academic honesty.
The student is encouraged to study with other students, to share notes and ideas. All examinations, laboratory exercises, and other assignments, must be completed by the student alone. Examinations and quizzes administered in this class during previous quarters are not available for review by the student, and any student who reviews such will be considered to have violated the policies on academic honesty. Neither this nor any other form of academic dishonesty will be tolerated. In the frame below is Northeastern’s Academic Honesty and Integrity Policy: