Anatomy of the Abdomen and Pelvis 1

Embryonic foundations

paraxial mesoderm

forms musculoskeletal system, dermis

intermediate mesoderm

contributes urinary and reproductive system structures

lateral mesoderm

intraembryonic coelomic cavities

mesothelial linings

somatic mesoderm + ectoderm = somatopleure

splanchnic mesoderm + endoderm = splanchnopleure

Internal anatomy

cavities

abdominopelvic cavity

pelvic inlet

peritoneum

layers:  parietal and visceral

examples

greater omentum

omental bursa

lesser omentum

epiploïc foramen (of Winslow)

mesenteries

examples:  transverse mesocolon, the mesentery

ligaments

examples:  falciform ligament, gastrolienic ligament

intraperitoneal vs. retroperitoneal

Design of the tubular digestive organs

structural plan

mucosa

epithelium

lamina propria

muscularis mucosae

submucosa

muscularis externa

serosa or adventitia

glands

mucosal

submucosal

Blood supply to the gut tube

foregut-derived organs [stomach, duodenum, liver, pancreas]

celiac trunk

midgut [distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, most of transverse colon]

superior mesenteric a

hindgut [distal transverse colon, descending and sigmoid colons, upper third of rectum]

inferior mesenteric a

hepatic portal system of venous drainage

splenic v

inferior mesenteric v

superior mesenteric v

Nerve supply

parasympathetic

vagus n [cranial n X]

sacral splanchnic nn

sympathetic

postganglionic fibers from celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric ganglia

intrinsic system

myenteric (Auerbach’s) plexus

submucosal (Meissner’s) plexus

Digestive system organs:  the head

mouth

lips and cheeks

vestibule

oral cavity

gingivae

teeth

alveolar processes of mandible and maxillae

crown

enamel

root

cementum

periodontal ligament

dentin

pulp cavity

apical foramen

deciduous teeth

2-1-0-2

incisors, canine, premolars, molars

permanent teeth

2-1-2-3

tongue

lingual frenulum

foramen cecum

taste buds

lingual tonsils

lingual salivary glands

palate

hard palate

soft palate

uvula

palatine tonsils

salivary glands

parotid glands

serous secretion

parotid (Stenson’s) duct

submandibular glands

mixed (seromucous) secretion

submandibular (Wharton’s) duct

sublingual glands

pharynx

nasopharynx

choanae

respiratory epithelium [pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells]

pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid)

pharyngotympanic (eustachian) tubes

oropharynx

isthmus of the fauces

palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches

laryngopharynx

laryngeal orifice

Digestive system organs:  the neck and thorax

esophagus

Digestive system organs:  the abdomen and pelvis

stomach

greater curvature

lesser curvature

cardia

cardioesophageal sphincter (LES)

fundus

body

pyloric region

pyloric sphincter

small intestine

duodenum

superior portion

descending portion

duodenal papilla

ampulla of Vater

horizontal portion

ascending portion

duodenojejunal flexure

ligament of Treitz

jejunum

ileum

Peyer’s patches

ileocecal valve

large intestine

cecum

vermiform appendix

ascending colon

transverse colon

descending colon

sigmoid colon

rectum

anal canal

internal anal sphincter

external anal sphincter

accessory digestive organs

liver and gallbladder

lobes

right

left

quadrate

caudate

ligamentum teres hepatis

bare area of the liver

biliary ducts

R and L hepatic ducts

common hepatic duct

cystic duct

common bile duct

pancreas

anatomy

head, neck, body, and tail

ducts

main pancreatic duct (of Wirsung)

from ventral pancreas

accessory pancreatic duct (of Santorini)

from dorsal pancreas

functional components

exocrine pancreas

endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans)

insulin

glucagon



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